ISSN 2410-5708 / e-ISSN 2313-7215

Year 13 | No. 36 | February - May 2024

Teacher Training and Gender in Honduras: Bachelor's Degrees in AGE and EPE (UPNFM)


Submitted on June 15th, 2023 / Accepted on January 12th, 2024

René Antonio Noé Martínez

Francisco Morazán National Pedagogical University

Education Administration and Management




Encarnación Bas-Peña

University of Murcia

Faculty of Education. Spain



Section: Education

Scientific research article

Keywords: teachers, teacher training, gender, equity, violence, sexist lexicon


This article reflects the results of a study conducted with students from the Francisco Morazán National Pedagogical University (UPNFM) on gender equity in their education. We seek to know from the students in Educational Administration and Management (AGE) and Preschool Education (EPE) their gender training. This is a descriptive study in which a survey is used for data collection, documentary review, and online interviews. The results show that gender training is not transversal, although they consider that it should be, preparing them to detect, diagnose, and treat gender and family violence, as well as to lead projects for its eradication.


Talking about gender equality and equity seems to be a topic that enters the fashions and is a favorite content in speeches of politicians, presidents, and representatives of nations in the world; however, recognizing gender equality between men and women goes beyond discourse, it is giving women the value, protection, respect and space they deservedly have. Honduras, as a member of the United Nations (UN), has not only participated in the meetings but also signed many agreements and reports. It begins with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) which it signed in 1949. In 1980, Honduras ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and, in 1993, participated in the adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993). In addition, it was present at the Fourth World Conference on Women (1995), which emphasized women’s equal participation in all social spaces and adopted its final report. It also attended the United Nations General Assembly when it created UN Women (2010), to defend gender equality and the empowerment of women (Resolution 64/289). As a nation, it welcomes the conclusions of the Commission on the Status of Women (March 2013), which highlights the close relationship between women and poverty, their limited access to education and training on equal terms with men, and recommends that nations open up without gender discrimination to those university careers considered hard and masculine. Regarding the Millennium Development Goals (UN, 2010), the authorities have emphasized the role of education as a fundamental tool to achieve them, arguing that pertinent measures must be taken to modify social and cultural patterns of behavior that put an end to prejudices and concepts of superiority and inferiority of one gender over another.

Educational institutions, and the university as an entity that researches and generates knowledge, are therefore fundamental pieces in the realization of these commitments made by the State; however, it is necessary to be clear about the prototype of the professional that you want to train, especially in the field of education “(...) to respond from a critical and constructive perspective to new realities, such as inequalities between men and women and violence against them” (Bas-Peña, Ferre & Maurandi-López, 2017, p. 63). The results of the study by Díaz-Aguado, Jalón & Carvajal-Gómez (2017), carried out among Spanish universities, reveal that “(...) Universities do not contemplate the gender perspective in a transversal way and (...), in their curricula, there are hardly any subjects that reflect the work of women throughout history, their contribution to science, etc.” (pp. 56-57). According to Red2Red Consultores (2008), Olmos (2011), and Pallarès (2012), sexist practices continue to exist in schools, and the university is no exception, This clearly shows prejudices and inequalities between men and women, instead of ensuring that the quality of education is improved and these discriminatory practices are eliminated.

Guerrero, Provostè, and Valdés (2006) point out that the differences between men and women are reflected not only in the performance tests but also in those of selection to enter the University, to the detriment of the equality expected of the educational system, which should not only ensure access to education but also better opportunities for both. Once the studies are completed. Likewise, the authors point out that inequality is reflected in the selection of careers and the low salaries and wages received by women in the exercise of their profession, insisting that inequalities are hidden in averages of access, performance, and permanence and that they are the result of “(...) an explicit and hidden curriculum that perpetuates these differences” (Guerrero, Provostè & Valdés, 2006, p. 27). However, we fully agree that through educational institutions we must form “well-placed heads rather than well-filled, teach the human condition, start in life, face uncertainty, teach how to become committed people [to put an end to] all types of discrimination and violence, such as those that affect women throughout the world” (Bas-Peña, Ferre & Maurandi-López, 2017, p. 64).

In Honduras, by constitutional mandate, Article 151 of the 1982 Constitution: “Education is an essential function of the State for the preservation, promotion and dissemination of culture, (...) without discrimination of any kind” (p. 9). Likewise, it makes clear, in its article 162, that the State values teaching for its character, essence, and high responsibilities “... scientific and moral rights vis-à-vis his disciples, the institution in which he works, and society.” (p.9). This Magna Carta also emphasizes, in its Article 163 that: “The training of teachers is the exclusive function and responsibility of the State (...)” (National Constituent Assembly, 1982, p.9). In this sense, and to fulfill this responsibility, the State has had, since 1956, the Francisco Morazán Teachers’ College (ESPFM), an entity that became the Francisco Morazán National Pedagogical University (UPNFM) in 1990.

The UPNFM, in addition to the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH), is the institution in charge of the training of teachers and teaching management staff for all educational levels from pre-primary to middle and secondary levels in all areas of knowledge. It offers eighteen teacher training careers at the undergraduate level in the Teaching of Mathematics, Social Sciences (Geography and History), Natural Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology), Teaching Spanish, Teaching English, Industrial Technical Education (Electricity, Wood, and Electronics), Art Education, Hospitality and Tourism, Educational Guidance and Counseling, Special Education, Administration and Management of Education and Pre-School Education or Pre-basic education.

However, if all the country’s commitments in terms of gender and equity are valued, they must be taught in teacher training so that they can reach all citizens and not simply remain a semantic-discursive construction. , as Guerrero, Provostè, and Valdés (2006) reveal, there is little progress in university teacher training from a gender perspective or approach, and it has been left out of curricular proposals and educational reforms; In addition, they insist that “the main initiatives, in this regard, consist of elective or optional courses attended by a small percentage of pedagogy students” (p. 41), without being able to ensure the training of all student teachers.

Likewise, we find studies that indicate that gender training, specifically in teacher training plans, has been one more content with the enunciation of testimonies (Hernández & Reybet, 2006; Guerrero, Valdés & Provosté, 2006; Fuentes & Holguín, 2006; Pitanga, Bas-Peña & Iranzo-García, 2012 & Bas-Peña, Pérez-de-Gúzman & Maurandi-López, 2015), but without the desired effect of raising awareness of the damage represented by gender inequality, discrimination and violence against girls and women, and this should be viewed with concern.

In this study, we focus on the careers of Education Administration and Management (AGE) and Pre-School Education or Pre-basic Education (EPE), which are also responsible for the training task, but with very peculiar characteristics, which deserve special attention. The first (AGE) is responsible for the training of those who will hold the positions of director, deputy director, secretary, and coordination (head) of areas in the different educational centers, from the Preschool or Pre-basic level (Early Childhood Education) to the Secondary Education centers, throughout the country. In the case of the second, Preschool or Pre-basic Education (EPE), it prepares all the teaching staff who will be teaching the students of the formal education proposal who are entering the Honduran educational system for the first time, between four and six years of age. Both groups, those who manage and teach children, should, through this initial training, develop gender competencies to ensure that culture and training in equity, elimination of violence, and discourses that proclaim the superiority of men over women or vice versa.

The systematic review of the existing literature provides us with relevant data regarding women’s equity and education, women’s professional training (feminization) in the teaching profession, and teacher training in gender matters, a topic addressed transversally in this paper. This document provides an overview of the progress made in some countries, starting with Spain, as a member of the OECD, continuing with examples from Latin America, and closing with Honduras, on which the study is made.

The right to education

Education and its formal formative processes, reflected in school-based education, have not necessarily been a right for all people, although theoretically and from the legislative perspective, the opposite could be said. It is from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) that education becomes a right that should not be restricted for reasons of race, creed, gender, or social position; however, reality reveals a hard story for women.

Subirats (1994) in his study “Conquering Equality: Coeducation Today”, makes it clear that: “Dominant groups have habitually constructed naturalistic or religious explanations to justify their domination and make it appear as unchangeable, inscribed in biology from the beginning” (p. 56); however, it has been impossible to stop the growing number of women who have demonstrated their ability to “study, to be creative or to develop activities that were previously forbidden to them” (p. 56) because they have chosen to educate themselves. In this way, the myth that women should be conditioned and trained basically for maternal and domestic care tasks is put to rest, as reflected in the study by Elverdin (2012), for whom the undervaluation of women reached the extreme of considering them incapable, intellectually speaking, qualifying them as appropriate only for domestic tasks and family care.

At the end of the 20th century, studies such as those by Fernández (1997) and Subirats (1990) and (1993) revealed the enormous gender inequalities and the scarce incorporation of women into educational systems in careers such as mathematics, physics, and technology, a situation that was not exclusive to underdeveloped or developing countries. but also of the nations that made up the OECD and many other countries.

UNESCO (2015) reveals that approximately 66% of the non-literate adult population in the world were women, that is, about 500 million women over the age of 15 did not have the minimum training in reading, writing, and arithmetic operations, thus manifesting this clear disadvantage from the very nature of being a man or a woman and its approach to the two fundamental areas of knowledge: Language and Mathematics. According to Ordorika (2015), inequalities persist and manifest themselves in harassment, harassment and gender-based violence. Thanks to a myriad of efforts, women now have, at least prescriptively, the same right to education at all levels and cycles of education systems and, indeed, are making use of it; however, women’s entry into formal education, and especially university studies, gives the impression of being marked by sexist patterns (Moreno, 1986; Moreno, 2000) of masculinity or hegemonic femininity (Rodríguez & Torio, 2005), culturally rooted through the family, the media, friendship circles and the school itself (González-Pérez, 2010).

Although in the 2009 Gender Parity Index (GPI), reflected in the study by Ordorika (2015), women presented a more favorable situation than men in North America, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean and Central Asia concerning access to higher education, in reality, the numbers do not reflect the elimination of these inequalities. gender discrimination and inequality that women have experienced and are experiencing.

Higher education institutions, in their eagerness to respond to growing and new social demands, are forced to assume changes and face new directions; however, as Cámpoli (2004) points out, universities “... They have always been organizations with structures that are reluctant to accept pressure to effect change (p. 4). Logically, due to its constant growth, work of high technical-scientific and professional level, its social commitment, its link with new research horizons, it is precisely in the higher education system where the elimination of the androcentric and sexist gaps practiced to date to the detriment of women is expected.

Unfortunately, this level of education seems, rather, to perpetrate this androcentric or patriarchal hegemony through discourses that convince women to decide, opt, and enroll in areas that allow them to receive the adequate knowledge to become dependent and weak subjects whose destiny is service. Likewise, these patriarchal conceptions and practices (García-Pérez, Sala & Cantó, 2013; Bordeau, 2000) orient women towards job options associated with the care economy (Feijoo, 2013), or careers that have been considered of lower value such as the humanities, social work, and teaching (Anguita, 2011; Ferrer, Bosch, & Navarro, 2011). In short, the situation has not changed in its essence and high percentages of women who access higher education do so precisely in the area of education to become the new teaching staff.

The teaching profession and its feminization

Starting from the premise that education is an eminently political and intentional task that allows “the preservation, promotion, and dissemination of culture (...)” (National Constituent Assembly, 1982, p. 33), we think that there is clear intentionality in education allowing, at least prescriptively, the integral formation of citizenship without discrimination of any kind, facilitating the knowledge, appropriation and appreciation of the culture and principles with which a nation is governed, generating as a result that citizenship that can be governed by the State. For Moreno (2006), Bolívar (2007), and Carpeño and Marim (2016), training for teaching is much more than a simple update in the subject, its pedagogy and didactics because true training generates those learning spaces that are reflected in better patterns of conduct, ways of acting and better coexistence.

Teachers are, consequently, the personnel in charge of this formative task that is carried out in educational institutions marked, sadly, by patriarchal influences. The social beings that are formed in schools, as Lamas (1996) would say, are “the result of a historical and social production” (p. 343) and teachers become “(...) into the product and producers of multiple practices, representations, symbols, codes constructed by men and women throughout history” (Elverdin, 2012, p.11). This generation and reproduction of stereotypes has led to the association of women with the teaching profession (Bosch et al., 2013), as reflected in the countries mentioned below.

We start with the example of Spain, which, when compared with the rest of the OECD countries, had, at least until the last decade, a better situation concerning the feminization of teaching. The diagnosis carried out by Pedró (2006) compares the average of the OECD countries and Spain and shows that 80% of primary school teachers are women, while in Spain it is 71% and in secondary school, the average number of female teachers for the rest of the OECD countries is 65% and in Spain approximately 60%. In the same vein, and in an attempt to present an example of the situation of teachers and students, we find the study conducted by Ródenas (2015) in the Department of Education of the University of Jaume I (UJI) in Barcelona. Reviewing the academic year, 2014–2015, it found that in the enrollment of the Teaching Degree of both infant and primary school, there were 1824 students: 1394 women (76.4%) and 430 men (23.5%). The teaching staff was made up of 106 teachers: 48 women (45.2%) and 52 men (54.7%), marking the enormous female quota in teaching, an example that seems to be emulated by some Latin American countries.

Argentina, for example, has been characterized as one of the first nations in Latin America to carry out teacher training at the university and non-university tertiary levels. However, it reflected in those who graduated this female predominance for careers in the area of humanities, which, according to Cámpoli (2004), represented twice as many graduates in exact and natural sciences. Likewise, this source reveals that “(...) The predominance of female teacher training is marked: 85% of the enrolment in teacher training were women, reproducing the same scheme of the normal schools, which were purely female (...)” (p. 14).

According to Calvo’s report (2004), Colombia had 138 teacher training institutions in 91 municipalities in its 25 departments, covering primary, secondary, and secondary basic education and the complementary cycle of teacher training, revealing that more than 80% of teachers (teachers and students) were women (Calvo, 1999). 2004).

In the particular case of Brazil, it is from the second half of the twentieth century, according to Beltrão and Alves (2009), when this trend of exclusion of women began to be reversed and the gap in access to education was reduced, but it was done in humanistic careers, especially teaching. According to the study by Montané and Pessoa (2012), during the last decade of the previous century, women already outnumbered men in the percentage of school and college attendance, and both enrolment and graduation records predominantly outnumber women.

For its part, Madrid (2006) argues that “The feminization of the teaching profession in Chile has been going on for more than a century” (p. 6), adding that at the time of her study, the teaching profession was markedly female, reaching 71% of the total number of teachers. In the same way, it points out that the distribution of teachers at the different levels was predominantly occupied by women, comprising: “99% of teachers in preschool education, 77% in basic education, 55% in secondary education and only 33% in university teaching” (Madrid, 2006, pp. 8-9). Mexico presents something similar.

In Mexico, according to INEE’s Report on Teachers in Mexico (2015), there is also a feminization of teaching work and it is attributed, in large part, to the employment of women (86.6%) for teaching in private education and general public institutions (65.9%). In addition, this report tacitly reports that in general: “Preschool and primary schools are preferably attended by women. In pre-school, there are 93 female educators for every 100 teachers; In primary school, the presence of women decreases to 67%, and in secondary school, it is slightly higher (52%) than that of boys.” (p. 31).

Teacher Training and Gender

If we start from the assumption that due to the universalization of knowledge and the generation of it around the issue of equity, equality and gender, it is the university that should be the one par excellence that should be the example to follow, socially speaking, to change and put into full exercise a culture of equality and gender equity in all its functions, but the data presented so far do not reflect this new and desired reality (Ródenas, 2015; Calvo, 2004; Beltrão & Alves, 2009; Montané & Pessoa, 2012; Madrid, 2006; INEE, 2015; SEDI-UNAH, 2017 and Statistics Module, 2018).

Unfortunately, the university is not excluded from this androcentric pattern and the patriarchal exercises that have been practiced in previous educational cycles and make it visible in the training of the new cadres of the teaching staff. Rebollo, García-Pérez, Piedra & Vega (2011) and Pallarès (2012) agree that teachers have been and are traditionally sexist and that in gender culture the involvement of teachers is scarce because it would force changes in the organization, curricular content, educational resources and teacher training itself, perhaps meaning the abandonment of niches of comfort to which they are accustomed.

According to the Statistics Module (2018), the UPNFM, teacher trainer in Honduras, had an enrollment of 25,856 students for the first academic period: 18,491 women (71.5%) and 7,365 men (28.5%). Currently, according to the website in its first academic period (I PAC-2023), the institution has 8,388 students in its face-to-face modality, of which 5,919 are women (70.56%) and 2,469 are men (29.4%). Internally, the gender situation at the level of the authorities, the UPNFM is headed by a rector (2017-2019); four vice-chancellorships (3 men and 1 woman); the General Secretariat is held by a man; two faculties headed by women: Humanities (FAHU) and Education (FACE) and the Faculty of Science and Technology (FACYT) is occupied by a man, a vice-dean (FAHU) and a vice-dean (FACYT). Of the 10 existing directorates, six are headed by directors and four by female directors. The number of students is mostly female, but the number of teachers seems to be more evenly distributed, and a male predominance is once again evident in the authorities. Based on the above information, a question arises to be answered from the perspective of the students: How are the students of Administration and Management of Education (AGE) and Preschool or Pre-basic Education (EPE) being trained and how do they value training in gender equality?


Essentially, the purpose of this study is to determine the presence of aspects about women and gender perspective in the subjects of the curricula of the aforementioned degrees and to know the importance given by the students of Administration and Management of Education and Preschool or Pre-Basic Education of the UPNFM (2008) to gender training and its practice during their studies. To achieve them: We identify the gender-specific subjects or curricular spaces and their typology (compulsory and optional) included in the two curricula; we describe the transversality of gender issues in the different subjects of the curriculum; We determine the contexts and means by which students have been trained in gender and equity issues, we assess the importance that students attach to gender training for their profession, their right to demand it and their level of training to work in cases of gender and family violence, and we define the strategies considered necessary to integrate these contents into the curriculum of their careers.


This is a multimedia and descriptive study using a survey, documentary review, and virtual interviews as instruments for the collection of information. The survey was made available to fourth-year students of the curriculum of both careers through the UM survey web application (Area of Applied Information and Communication Technologies, 2017), to be completed anonymously. This instrument had already been validated in previous studies (Bas-Peña, Pérez-de-Guzmán & Vargas-Vergara, 2014); however, all the questions were reviewed to make some vocabulary adaptations due to the meaning that some words could have in Honduras. Some dichotomous and multiple-choice questions were disaggregated and refined and then made available to students.

The documentary review was used to analyze the information of the curricula of both careers: minimum descriptions of the subjects, objectives, entry-exit profiles, and the subject matter of the different subjects to identify sexist lexicon, topics related to gender (domestic and family violence, discrimination, mistreatment, harassment, inequities, scientific contributions, and exemplifications) and transversality. obligatory or voluntary nature of the courses that address them. The virtual interview was used to fill in details about the population under study: teaching staff, enrollment data, and identification of students in the last year of studies.

Population and Sample

Regarding students, for the third period of 2017, 552 students were enrolled in Preschool or Pre-basic Education: 538 were women (97.46%), and 14 were men (2.54%). In the same period, the Education Administration and Management Department had an enrollment of 319 students: 224 women (70%) and 95 men (30%). Based on the data provided by both career coordinators, approximately 150 students are in their final year of training. In this case, the sample is made up of 84 students who voluntarily completed and returned the instrument to our database from November 2017 to February 2018. A total of 30 AGE students (35.7%) and 54 EPE students (64.3%) participated in the study. The sample consisted of 75 women (89.3%) and 9 men (10.7%).


From the interview conducted virtually with the coordinators at the time, and heads of departments now because the careers became departments, we found that the teaching staff attending the Bachelor’s Degree in Preschool or Pre-Basic Education was made up of six teachers, all of whom were women. The coordinator of the career has historically been a woman and to date (2022) has never had a male professor assigned to this specialty. In the case of the Teaching Staff in Educational Administration and Management in the Bachelor’s degree, the current coordinator at that time and Head of the Department now, reported that the teaching staff of the same is made up of nine professors between tenured and full-time professors, of which five are professors and four professors. The coordination is headed by a teacher at the moment.

When comparing the data collected from headquarters and those provided by the sample, we found a marked prevalence of women in both careers, coinciding with the studies carried out by Aguilar (2015) and Bosch et al. (2013), which allow us to associate the female collective with the teaching career. Likewise, the situation of the marked female population in the teaching staff of the careers of Administration and Management of Education and Preschool Education (Prebasic) coincides with the data revealed by Calvo (2004) in his study on Colombia; Montané and Pessoa (2012) in Brazil; Madrid (2006) in Chile; INEE (2015) in Mexico and Pedró (2006) and Ródenas (2015) in Spain, where female teachers are more than male teachers. In other words, in Honduras, as in the rest of the countries mentioned above, initial teacher training and university teaching are marked by the presence of women, highlighting the idea of the feminization of teaching (Anguita, 2011 and Ferrer, Bosch & Navarro, 2011).

From the review and documentary analysis: From the analysis of the plans and programs, minimum descriptions and scripts of the training spaces of both specialties: Administration and Management of Education (AGE) and Preschool or Pre-basic Education (EPE) leading to the bachelor’s degree, we find that they include subjects of pedagogical training, specialty, general basic training (FGF), Professional Foundation Training (FFP), Professional Internships (PP), Seminars (SEM) and Electives in Natural Sciences (ECN), Art and Communication (EAC), Humanistic Education (EEH) (see Table No.1)

Board 1. Distribution of Subjects in Bachelor’s Degrees





Pedagogy-Oriented Didactics



































Source: Own generation

From the analysis, we learn that from the AGE curriculum, none of the curricular spaces or subjects have a specific name for gender. Additionally, of the minimum descriptions of all curricular spaces, only one specialty subject was found that explicitly addresses the issue of gender (PAG-4300: Counseling for Parents). Paradoxically, the very name of the curricular space does not include mothers. Among the topics addressed, we find the legal basis with topics such as Family Code, Childhood and Adolescence Code, Children’s Rights, Family Violence, and Child Abuse; likewise, in the third unit three fundamental topics related to gender equity and equality are developed: Machismo, Women’s Liberation and Women at Work. In short, none of the subjects that take the AGE degree has a name, or title or is suggestive of gender content; however, PAG-4300, even though its name does not contain it, its subject matter does contemplate it, but it is the only space in the entire curriculum that prescribes it.

About EPE, from the minimum descriptions of the subjects, we find that Gender, Equity, and Equality do not appear as a name or part of it in any of the curricular spaces; however, it is approached differently in several subjects.

Board 2. Gender in Subjects or Pedagogical Spaces





Basic Fundamentals of Early Childhood Education

Psychomotor skills

Developmental psychology

Approaches to Attention to Diversity

Psychomotor Development of the Child (dance, dance),

Historical evolution of the family,

Family Integration and Dynamics, Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children



Didactics of:


the CCs. NN.


Professional Pract. I

Approaches to attention to diversity,

Care for culturally and linguistically diverse children,

Human rights

Work with parents,

Criminalization of Children’s Play,

Children’s Play Spaces

Children’s Movement inside and outside the classroom,

Psychomotor Development of the Child (dance, dance),

Family & Community,

Historical evolution of the family,

Family and community social risks,

Integration and family dynamics,

Prevention and promotion processes in family and community counseling and

Educational, family, and community care projects

Source: Own generation

From the above, we find sufficient evidence to infer that there is a consistent number of spaces from which gender equity is contemplated in the topics of EPE; however, whether their development is carried out will depend on the training on gender that the teachers in charge of the curricular spaces or subjects have. because “(...) it doesn’t matter how good a syllabus is and how good the educational materials are: as long as the teachers don’t change, everything will stay the same” Arriola (2013, p.47).

Based on the survey: the data are assessed from a statistical perspective and the variables of training on equality, media, violence, prevention, detection, suffering and reporting, and transversality of training on the subject, among others, are analyzed. We grouped some of the variables to process them in a better way due to the close relationship between them and to relate them to the objectives set.

Regarding Spaces, Groups, Media, and Training on Equality and Prevention of Violence, the sample has received training on equality between men and women through the family (76.2%); through university (64.3%); through the use of ICT and social networks (50%) and Secondary Education (42%). Directly, regarding the curriculum and training on gender violence and equity, we found that 34.52% of the sample said that it was done through a specific subject; In the same way, 66.6% of the sample indicates that the approach is made as a theme within the subject, coinciding with Guerrero, Provostè and Valdés (2006) who state that “... it is developed as a theme and not as an approach; and 17.7% reflect that the training has been done through courses, seminars or conferences on the subject. In general, it can be said that, according to the sample, the family and the university are the two institutions through which the most training on equality and Violence Prevention is received and that the UPNFM has used different curricular spaces between subjects, specific topics, seminars, and meetings to do so. Finally, the sample confirms, more than 71%, that they agree or agree that education for equality is the basis for preventing gender violence as supported by the studies of Guerrero, Provostè, and Valdés (2006) and that the problems of gender socialization lie in the curricular offer and the culture of the teachers. because discourse is not enough (Bonder, 2013).

In addition, as education professionals, the sample assesses between a lot or quite a lot of need to include in their training Education for equality between men and women (100%), Prevention and detection of gender violence (94%), and Early detection of gender violence in the family environment (89%). In addition, approximately 74% of the sample considers it very or quite necessary that it is convenient to develop the subject through different subjects of the academic curriculum, 70% indicate that it should be done in a transversal way in the curriculum and there are 58.3% who consider that there should be a specific subject that trains in the subject. In summary, for more than 89% of the student body, the three topics mentioned above are necessary for the training of these specialties and the best-valued ways to do so is through different subjects, transversally and having a course that addresses it particularly because any attempt at non-sexist education will have failed if teachers are not properly trained (Bonder, 2013; Arriola, 2013; Pallarès, 2012 and Rebollo, García-Pérez, Piedra & Vega, 2011).

About the knowledge that the sample had of the existence of gender training in Honduran universities, 46 people (54.8%) revealed that they were aware that such training existed, but 58 of them (69%) stated that if it existed, it was not mandatory. In summary, according to the majority of the people who make up the sample, the existence of gender training at the university level is recognized, but it is only compulsory for 31%, a percentage that coincides in a general way with the subject matter developed in the EPE curriculum.

When assessing the capacity developed, once they have finished their studies, to work in Gender Equality, we found that 63% of the students feel between very qualified and quite qualified to work in Education for Equality; 61% to do so in Gender Violence and 54.7% to Detect situations of violence early and more than 58% feel trained to Design, develop and evaluate education and gender programs. In addition, when inquiring about the instances to which they have resorted to incorporate the previous topics when they had not been included in the development of the curricular spaces, 62% have gone to their representatives; 38% have done so with the authorities of the career; 41% have gone to the student ombudsmen (Directorate of Student Services (DISE)) and the dean’s office, Approximately 31% attended. In summary, the sample presents sufficient evidence to consider that the training received in the aforementioned topics prepares them in such a way that they feel very qualified and quite qualified in the lines of gender equity and that when the subject was not included they turned first to their representatives, then to the DISE. then to the coordinators and, as a last resort, to the deans so that the topics were included.

Approximately 90% of the sample agrees and strongly agrees that to train in gender in a transversal way, it is necessary to raise awareness among teachers, student representative entities, and authorities (governing body) and they also agree that the Prevention and detection of gender violence and violence in the family environment should be included in their curriculum and that the UNPNFM has mechanisms in place to ensure that it is trained in this regard.

Additionally, we found 71% of the sample that reflects interest and a lot of interest in learning about Education for equal opportunities between men and women; 72.6% express these levels of interest in the Prevention and detection of gender-based violence and 77.4% do so in the Early Detection of gender-based violence in the family. To sum up, training in gender transversally is required, according to the sample, the awareness of teachers, entities, student representatives, and authorities, coinciding with the contributions of Contreras (2004), Subirats (2006), and Rebollo (2013), for whom the organization as a whole and the teaching staff, specifically, must be sensitized to guarantee the quality and equity that the gender perspective entails.

Likewise, the Institution must ensure that there are spaces within the curricula to address the subject because there is a high interest of the students of these careers to learn about education for equal opportunities, prevention and detection of violence, and the early detection of family violence.

When inquiring about the type of reading carried out by these students, we found that 50% have read research, reports, and studies on gender equality, followed by 37% who have read essays on the subject and 31% who have read research, studies and reports on gender discrimination. Additionally, 25% have read theatre about equality and gender biographies. It should be noted that 73.8% of the sample took the readings voluntarily, compared to 26.3% who revealed that they had done so voluntarily. The reading of theaters, novels, essays, research, reports, and studies on gender equity and discrimination has been carried out voluntarily and these readings, according to 90% of the sample, have led them to become aware of gender inequalities and opportunities between men and women; 88% have reflected on these inequalities and 87% admit to having greater knowledge about them.

In addition, 84.5% admit that these readings have opened up their perspectives on actions to be taken in the event of gender incidents and discrimination; Approximately 82% believe that the readings have had an impact on their gender education and 80% admit that these readings have helped them to commit to achieving gender equality. However, the 9.5% who reflect not having done any type of reading on the subject under study should be viewed with concern because they are students in their final year of degree, and as they do not know the subject it cannot be assured that they will have training tools to exercise their profession from a gender equity perspective.

Regarding the knowledge that the students of these careers have about materials that develop gender issues, we specifically found that the material they know the most is related to five areas: Family or Domestic Violence with 85% of the sample; about 80% referred to Gender Violence; 69% of the sample knows materials on Education for Equality, 70% on Violence between Peers and 50% know materials on Coeducation. In summary, more than half of the students in these two careers know materials in these five major areas of gender education, but they have greater knowledge about Family Violence and Gender Violence, and the one they know less about co-education.

Regarding the recognition of situations as gender-based violence about their partner (sporadic or stable), for 75% of the sample all the situations listed in the survey are considered gender-based violence: insults and offenses in public and/or private, preventing them from talking to other people including their own family, criticism or undervaluing of what they do, unpleasant remarks about physical appearance, imposition of way of dressing, combing and behaving in public, control of place and person with whom he is at a given time, throwing objects, pushing or grabbing him violently, hitting him or manifesting physical brutality against them, intimidation and threats, forcibly intercourse, chasing him, sending messages or calling to control, harasses or extorts through messages. The exhibition reveals the situation of violence that they know, have witnessed, experienced and the places where it has occurred (Figure 1)

Figure 1

Figure 1. Situation of Violence

In addition, we found that schools (pre-primary (7), basic (6), secondary (12)), and other training institutions (11) are the places with the lowest incidence of this violence. Also, the study shows that 58.3% have not suffered such violence, but there is 41.7% admit to having experienced it. In summary, approximately 75% of the sample value all the situations listed as forms of gender-based violence that are exercised in the couple; More than 33% have witnessed scenarios or situations of gender-based violence either in marriages, families (father-mother-siblings), and more than 40% have suffered it. Except for the university, educational and training centers are where these situations occur the least. Finally, it calls for reflection and deserves a more in-depth study of the remaining 25% for whom none of the situations or very few of them were valued or considered as acts of violence.

Regarding the knowledge that the subjects have about the places where they can go or the means that can be used to make a complaint, more than 50% of them (43) are aware of these instances, but only 17.9% report having reported it. And when relating these three aspects: having witnessed scenes of gender-based violence, knowledge of the instances and means to make complaints and the volume of complaints, we find the lack of awareness and urgency of it.

Figure 2

Figure 2. Violence, Advocacy, and Denunciation

We consider that this scenario deserves further investigation because, dangerously, if the levels of incidence, suffering, and low reporting are related, they can lead to thinking that teachers in training live with this situation and assume it is a daily occurrence.

When asked about the use of sexist language in the classroom, about 55% of the sample admit to recognizing it when it is used; 32% admit to using it and 25% of the sample admit that the teachers who train them practice it. Likewise, about the use of generics by teachers, 32% admit that teachers do so to refer to mixed groups. These data also coincide with the presence of this language in the minimum descriptions, methodological scripts, and input and output profiles, with the objectives being those that are written using generics or using the masculine and feminine explicitly. In short, despite acknowledging sexist language, both teachers and students continue to use it in the classroom.


Once the documentary review has been completed, the data collected through the survey has been analyzed and the contributions of the virtual interview have been processed, we can conclude that:

In the general descriptions of the curricula, profiles, minimum descriptions, methodological scripts, subjects, and subject matter, we find spaces where the sexist lexicon continues to be used, especially when it refers to positions of authority and that both students and teachers recognize, but a third use it.

Of the entire AGE curriculum, there is only one course that addresses gender issues and does so in the training, workshops, or seminars that are developed with the population of the UPNFM’s area of affectation; however, the subject is addressed more transversally in the training of professionals in the area of Preschool through different topics in several subjects, although none of them is specifically about gender.

The gender training of these students is primarily due to the family and the university, although, contradictorily, they are the two entities where the highest incidence of gender violence is being practiced, specifically in a percentage of the student body.

Even though the majority of the sample considers itself capable of working on education for equality, early detection of gender and family violence, and designing, developing, and evaluating gender programs, the high percentage of this sample that has witnessed scenes of violence with family members or close people, the medium knowledge they have about the institutions where complaints can be made and the small number of people who make them, They reflect the danger that people have developed a culture where violence is assumed as a reality that has to be lived with and that training on gender equality continues to be more theoretical-conceptual than attached to the reality of the student body.

Students consider it necessary to incorporate training in gender and equity in a transversal way in their training plans and that it is accompanied by training for teachers, career coordinators, department heads, deans, and other authorities. Finally, the UPNFM is the institution in Honduras that must take on and face the challenge, reviewing and ensuring that the teacher training carried out in it guarantees a gender perspective that is reflected in educational quality and equity for men and women.

Finally, when comparing the statistical data of these careers, we found female students from AGE (70%) and EPE (97%) coinciding with the rest of the countries mentioned in this study, which leads us to think that the feminization of teaching is as real in Honduras as in the rest of the countries cited in this study.


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